The Ultimate Guide To Contraceptives
Contraception is the precautions you undertake while having sex so that you don’t get pregnant.
Not everyone wants kids and getting unplanned pregnant can really wreck your future plans and put you through unnecessary problems as well as put a strain in your relationship.
There are various ways of contraception and they have their own pros and cons.
You can choose one according to your convenience.
Different Contraception Methods
There are mainly 5 methods of contraception available.
1. Long-acting Contraceptives That Are Reversible In Nature
These are effective methods of contraception which do not require any action from your side.
Some of these include intrauterine device (IUD) as well as contraceptive implants and injections .
IUDs are 99% effective in preventing pregnancy which means only 1 out of 100 woman using it will get pregnant .
It is a t shaped device made of copper and plastic which is inserted into the uterus of the woman.
The copper prevents the sperm from reaching the uterus and also prohibits its survival.
They work for around 10 years but can be taken out before as well.
A contraceptive implant is put by a doctor or a nurse under your upper arm’s skin.
It is a small rod that prevents the egg from being released, thins the uterus lining and also prevents sperm from reaching uterus.
This method works for around 3 years but can also be taken out earlier.
Contraceptive injections also have 99% effectiveness in preventing pregnancy when used perfectly.
However when the use isn’t perfect, these injections are only 94% effective.
About 6 women getting these injections out of 100 women would get pregnant
This injection releases the hormone progesterone which stops ovulation and thins the lining of the uterus.
The injection works for 8 or 13 weeks, depending upon the type of injection you taken.
2. Barrier method
There are mainly 4 methods under barrier method which work by preventing the sperm from reaching the uterus.
The 4 methods are diaphragm, contraceptive sponge, condoms, and cervical cap.
Condoms are available for men as well as women however male condoms are much more common.
The sperm is collected and not discharged into the vagina. Condoms are usually made of materials like latex, plastic polyurethane and rubber and come in various colour, style and thickness.
However, condoms should be used with care as long fingernails can year them or there could be a manufacturing defect that could lead to its breakage.
Condoms allow around 90% level of protection.
A female condom is not much common and is a cylindrical pouch made of polyurethane. Practice is required before a woman finally learns to insert the same in her vagina correctly.
Diaphragm is a flexible and soft latex cup which is inserted into the vagina before the intercourse.
This device prevents the access to cervix so that sperm does not reaches the uterus.
The diaphragm should be inserted into the vagina no more than 4 hours before the sex.
One must have a health care prescription before buying it and its long term usage can lead to urinary tract infection in women.
When used correctly, it has a success rate of around 85%.
Contraceptive sponge is injected with a chemical Nonoxynol 9 which is a spermicide i.e. it kills sperms.
The sponge is inserted high up in woman’s vagina before intercourse just like a tampon.
Once inserted, it provides protection up to 24 hours. The sponge is around 65 to 85% effective in preventing pregnancy in women.
A cervical cup as the name suggests is a cup made of latex which fits perfectly around the woman’s cervix.
The cervical cup is used along with spermicide for effective protection. Once inserted, it can provide protection for the next 48 hours.
It is important to note that cervical cups do not provide any protection against STDs and are only 80% effective in preventing unwanted pregnancy..
3. Hormone Pills And Rings
Hormone pills prevent the uterus from releasing eggs or prevent the sperm from reaching them.
The most common is oral contraceptive pill which contains a combination of the male and the female hormone to prevent ovulation.
When used perfectly, they are 99% effective and in case of typical use they are only 91% effective.
They also help in making your periods regular and prevent the risk of uterus and colon cancer.
The hormone patches and rings work in a similar way as the hormone pill, the difference being patches are applied on the surface of the skin whereas in case of hormonal rings, they are in form of vaginal rings which slowly release the hormones.
4. Permanent Method
Permanent control methods are ones which are not reversible in nature.
They are available in the form of surgery for men as well as women, in women it is known as tubal ligation whereas in case of men it is called vasectomy.
Vasectomy is the more common one and in it the tubes which carry the sperm up to the testicles are cut and tied up.
The man still produces semen but since there is no sperm in it, the woman’s eggs are not fertilized.
However one must make sure that they have decided finally to have no kids before taking these procedures as they are permanent in nature and there is no way out.
5. Natural Methods
Natural methods of contraception are based on the observation of woman’s body.
It means that intercourse shouldn’t take place during certain time of the month i.e when the woman is ovulating.
A woman’s egg is released on an average 14 days prior to her menstruation cycle.
Based on this fact, the calendar rhythm method is used where the woman keeps notice of her last 12 menstrual cycles and then subtracts 18 days from her shortest menstrual cycle to determine her first fertile day and 11 days from her longest menstrual cycle to determine her last fertile day.
This method is around 80% effective in preventing pregnancy.
Another method is the basal body temperature method where the woman takes her temperature using a special temperature everyday.
This is because the woman temperature is said to drop 12 to 24 hours before egg is released from her ovary.
However this temperature difference is not large enough and should be recorded carefully.
There are various contraception methods available that should be used according to one’s body needs.
Not everyone are 100% effective as well and it is important that one should not rely on them completely and take a pregnancy test once they miss their periods.